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Archive for October, 2011

In all my years of working SQL server, one of the most commonly asked questions has always been “How can we recover deleted record?”

Now, it is very easy to recover deleted data from your SQL server 2005 or above.(Note: This script can recover following data types & compatible with CS collation).

  • image
  • text
  • uniqueidentifier
  • tinyint
  • smallint
  • int
  • smalldatetime
  • real
  • money
  • datetime
  • float
  • sql_variant
  • ntext
  • bit
  • decimal
  • numeric
  • smallmoney
  • bigint
  • varbinary
  • varchar
  • binary
  • char
  • timestamp
  • nvarchar
  • nchar
  • xml
  • sysname

Let me explain this issue demonstrating simple example.

--Create Table
Create Table [Test_Table]
(
[Col_image] image,
[Col_text] text,
[Col_uniqueidentifier] uniqueidentifier,
[Col_tinyint] tinyint,
[Col_smallint] smallint,
[Col_int] int,
[Col_smalldatetime] smalldatetime,
[Col_real] real,
[Col_money] money,
[Col_datetime] datetime,
[Col_float] float,
[Col_Int_sql_variant] sql_variant,
[Col_numeric_sql_variant] sql_variant,
[Col_varchar_sql_variant] sql_variant,
[Col_uniqueidentifier_sql_variant] sql_variant,
[Col_Date_sql_variant] sql_variant,
[Col_varbinary_sql_variant] sql_variant,
[Col_ntext] ntext,
[Col_bit] bit,
[Col_decimal] decimal(18,4),
[Col_numeric] numeric(18,4),
[Col_smallmoney] smallmoney,
[Col_bigint] bigint,
[Col_varbinary] varbinary(Max),
[Col_varchar] varchar(Max),
[Col_binary] binary(8),
[Col_char] char,
[Col_timestamp] timestamp,
[Col_nvarchar] nvarchar(Max),
[Col_nchar] nchar,
[Col_xml] xml,
[Col_sysname] sysname
)

GO
--Insert data into it
INSERT INTO [Test_Table]
           ([Col_image]
           ,[Col_text]
           ,[Col_uniqueidentifier]
           ,[Col_tinyint]
           ,[Col_smallint]
           ,[Col_int]
           ,[Col_smalldatetime]
           ,[Col_real]
           ,[Col_money]
           ,[Col_datetime]
           ,[Col_float]
           ,[Col_Int_sql_variant]
		   ,[Col_numeric_sql_variant]
           ,[Col_varchar_sql_variant]
           ,[Col_uniqueidentifier_sql_variant]
		   ,[Col_Date_sql_variant]
           ,[Col_varbinary_sql_variant]
           ,[Col_ntext]
           ,[Col_bit]
           ,[Col_decimal]
           ,[Col_numeric]
           ,[Col_smallmoney]
           ,[Col_bigint]
           ,[Col_varbinary]
           ,[Col_varchar]
           ,[Col_binary]
           ,[Col_char]
           ,[Col_nvarchar]
           ,[Col_nchar]
           ,[Col_xml]
           ,[Col_sysname])
     VALUES
           (CONVERT(IMAGE,REPLICATE('A',4000))
           ,REPLICATE('B',8000)
           ,NEWID()
           ,10
           ,20
           ,3000
           ,GETDATE()
           ,4000
           ,5000
           ,getdate()+15
           ,66666.6666
           ,777777
		   ,88888.8888
           ,REPLICATE('C',8000)
           ,newid()
		   ,getdate()+30
           ,CONVERT(VARBINARY(8000),REPLICATE('D',8000))
           ,REPLICATE('E',4000)
           ,1
           ,99999.9999
           ,10101.1111
           ,1100
           ,123456
           ,CONVERT(VARBINARY(MAX),REPLICATE('F',8000))
           ,REPLICATE('G',8000)
           ,0x4646464
           ,'H'
           ,REPLICATE('I',4000)
           ,'J'
           ,CONVERT(XML,REPLICATE('K',4000))
           ,REPLICATE('L',100)
		   )

GO
--Delete the data
Delete from Test_Table
Go
--Verify the data
Select * from Test_Table
Go
--Recover the deleted data without date range
EXEC Recover_Deleted_Data_Proc 'test','dbo.Test_Table'
GO
--Recover the deleted data it with date range
EXEC Recover_Deleted_Data_Proc 'test','dbo.Test_Table','2012-06-01','2012-06-30'

Download Stored Procedure :

Now, you need to create the procedure to recover your deleted data

Watch on Youtube : How to recover the deleted Data in SQL Server

Explanation:

How does it work? Let’s go through it step by step. The process requires seven easy steps:

Step-1:

We need to get the deleted records from sql server. By using the standard SQL Server function fn_blog, we can easily get all transaction log (Including deleted data. But, we need only the selected deleted records from the transaction log. So we included three filters (Context, Operation & AllocUnitName).

  • Context (‘LCX_MARK_AS_GHOST’and ‘LCX_HEAP’)
  • Operation (‘LOP_DELETE_ROWS’)
  • AllocUnitName(‘dbo.Student’) –- Schema + table Name

Here is the code snippet:

Select [RowLog Contents 0] FROM sys.fn_dblog(NULL,NULL)WHERE AllocUnitName =‘dbo.Student’ AND Context IN (‘LCX_MARK_AS_GHOST’, ‘LCX_HEAP’) AND Operation in (‘LOP_DELETE_ROWS’)

This query will return number of columns providing different information, but we only need to select the column “RowLog content o, to get the deleted data.

The Column “RowLog content 0″ will look like this:

“0x300018000100000000000000006B0000564920205900000

00500E001002800426F62206A65727279″

Step-2:

Now,we have deleted data but in Hex values but SQL keeps this data in a specific sequence so we can easily recover it.But before recovering the data we need to understand the format. This format is defined in detail in Kalen Delaney’s SQL Internal’s book.

  • 1 Byte : Status Bit A
  • 1 Byte : Status Bit B
  • 2 Bytes : Fixed length size
  • n Bytes : Fixed length data
  • 2 Bytes : Total Number of Columns
  • n Bytes : NULL Bitmap (1 bit for each column as 1 indicates that the column is null and 0 indicate that the column is not null)
  • 2 Bytes : Number of variable-length columns
  • n Bytes : Column offset array (2x variable length column)
  • n Bytes : Data for variable length columns

So, the Hex data“RowLog content 0″ is equal to:

“Status Bit A + Status Bit B + Fixed length size + Fixed length data + Total Number of Columns + NULL Bitmap + Number of variable-length columns + NULL Bitmap+ Number of variable-length columns + Column offset array + Data for variable length columns.”

Step-3:

Now, we need to break the RowLog Content o (Hex value of our deleted data) into the above defined structure.[Color codes are used for reference only]

  • [Fixed Length Data] = Substring (RowLog content 0, Status Bit A+ Status Bit B + 1,2 bytes)
  • [Total No of Columns]= Substring (RowLog content 0, [Fixed Length Data] + 1,2 bytes)
  • [Null Bitmap length] = Ceiling ([Total No of Columns]/8.0)
  • [Null Bytes]= Substring (RowLog content 0, Status Bit A+ Status Bit B + [Fixed Length Data] +1, [Null Bitmap length] )
  • Total no of variable columns = Substring (RowLog content 0, Status Bit A+ Status Bit B + [Fixed Length Data] +1, [Null Bitmap length] + 2 )
  • Column Offset Array= Substring (RowLog content 0, Status Bit A+ Status Bit B + [Fixed Length Data] +1, [Null Bitmap length] + 2 , Total no of variable columns*2 )
  • Variable Column Start = Status Bit A+ Status Bit B + [Fixed Length Data] + [Null Bitmap length] + 2+( Total no of variable columns*2)

Step-4:

Now, we have the split of data as well,so we can find that which one column value is null or not by using Null Bytes. To achieve this convert Null Bytes (Hex value) into Binary format (As discussed, 1 indicates null for the column and 0 means there is some data).Here in this data, the Null Bitmap values are 00000111.We have only five column in student table (used as sample) and first five value of null bitmap is 00000.It means there is no null values.

Step-5:

Now, we have the primary data split (Step-3) and null values (Step-4) as well. After that we need to use this code snippet to get the column data like column name, column size, precision, scale and most importantly the leaf null bit (to ensure that the column is fixed data (<=-1) or variable data sizes (>=1)) of the table.

Select * from sys.allocation_units allocunits INNER JOIN sys.partitions partitions ON (allocunits.type IN (1, 3) AND partitions.hobt_id = allocunits.container_id) OR (allocunits.type = 2 AND partitions.partition_id = allocunits.container_id) INNER JOIN sys.system_internals_partition_columns cols ON cols.partition_id = partitions.partition_id LEFT OUTER JOIN syscolumns ON syscolumns.id = partitions.object_id AND syscolumns.colid = cols.partition_column_id

And join it with our collected data table (Step-1,2,3,4) on the basis of allocunits.[Allocation_Unit_Id].Till now we know the information about the table and data,so we need to utilize this data to break [RowLog Contents 0] into table column data but in hex value. Here we need to take care as the data is either in fixed column size or in variable column size. .

Step-6:

We collected data in hex value (Step-5) with respect to each column. Now we need to convert the data with respect to its data type defined as [System_type_id]. Each type is having different mechanism
for data conversion.


--NVARCHAR ,NCHAR
WHEN system_type_id IN (231, 239) THEN  LTRIM(RTRIM(CONVERT(NVARCHAR(max),hex_Value)))

--VARCHAR,CHAR
 WHEN system_type_id IN (167,175) THEN  LTRIM(RTRIM(CONVERT(VARCHAR(max),REPLACE(hex_Value, 0x00, 0x20))))

--TINY INTEGER
 WHEN system_type_id = 48 THEN CONVERT(VARCHAR(MAX), CONVERT(TINYINT, CONVERT(BINARY(1), REVERSE (hex_Value))))

--SMALL INTEGER
 WHEN system_type_id = 52 THEN CONVERT(VARCHAR(MAX), CONVERT(SMALLINT, CONVERT(BINARY(2), REVERSE (hex_Value))))

-- INTEGER
 WHEN system_type_id = 56 THEN CONVERT(VARCHAR(MAX), CONVERT(INT, CONVERT(BINARY(4), REVERSE(hex_Value))))

-- BIG INTEGER
 WHEN system_type_id = 127 THEN CONVERT(VARCHAR(MAX), CONVERT(BIGINT, CONVERT(BINARY(8), REVERSE(hex_Value))))

--DATETIME
 WHEN system_type_id = 61 Then CONVERT(VARCHAR(Max),CONVERT(DATETIME,Convert(VARBINARY(max),REVERSE (hex_Value))),100)

--SMALL DATETIME
WHEN system_type_id =58 Then CONVERT(VARCHAR(Max),CONVERT(SMALLDATETIME,CONVERT(VARBINARY(MAX),REVERSE(hex_Value))),100) --SMALL DATETIME

--- NUMERIC
 WHEN system_type_id = 108 THEN CONVERT(VARCHAR(MAX), CAST(CONVERT(NUMERIC(18,14), CONVERT(VARBINARY,CONVERT(VARBINARY,xprec)+CONVERT(VARBINARY,xscale))+CONVERT(VARBINARY(1),0) + hex_Value) as FLOAT))

--MONEY,SMALLMONEY
 WHEN system_type_id In(60,122) THEN CONVERT(VARCHAR(MAX),Convert(MONEY,Convert(VARBINARY(MAX),Reverse(hex_Value))),2)

--- DECIMAL
 WHEN system_type_id = 106 THEN CONVERT(VARCHAR(MAX), CAST(CONVERT(Decimal(38,34), Convert(VARBINARY,Convert(VARBINARY,xprec)+CONVERT(VARBINARY,xscale))+CONVERT(VARBINARY(1),0) + hex_Value) as FLOAT))

-- BIT
 WHEN system_type_id = 104 THEN CONVERT(VARCHAR(MAX),CONVERT (BIT,CONVERT(BINARY(1), hex_Value)%2))

--- FLOAT
 WHEN system_type_id = 62 THEN  RTRIM(LTRIM(Str(Convert(FLOAT,SIGN(CAST(Convert(VARBINARY(max),Reverse(hex_Value)) AS BIGINT)) * (1.0 + (CAST(CONVERT(VARBINARY(max),Reverse(hex_Value)) AS BIGINT) & 0x000FFFFFFFFFFFFF) * POWER(CAST(2 AS FLOAT), -52)) * POWER(CAST(2 AS FLOAT),((CAST(CONVERT(VARBINARY(max),Reverse(hex_Value)) AS BIGINT) & 0x7ff0000000000000) / EXP(52 * LOG(2))-1023))),53,LEN(hex_Value))))

--REAL
When  system_type_id =59 THEN  Left(LTRIM(STR(Cast(SIGN(CAST(Convert(VARBINARY(max),Reverse(hex_Value)) AS BIGINT))* (1.0 + (CAST(CONVERT(VARBINARY(max),Reverse(hex_Value)) AS BIGINT) & 0x007FFFFF) * POWER(CAST(2 AS Real), -23)) * POWER(CAST(2 AS Real),(((CAST(CONVERT(VARBINARY(max),Reverse(hex_Value)) AS INT) )& 0x7f800000)/ EXP(23 * LOG(2))-127))AS REAL),23,23)),8)

--BINARY,VARBINARY
WHEN system_type_id In (165,173) THEN (CASE WHEN Charindex(0x,cast('' AS XML).value('xs:hexBinary(sql:column("hex_value"))', 'varbinary(max)')) = 0 THEN '0x' ELSE '' END) +cast('' AS XML).value('xs:hexBinary(sql:column("hex_value"))', 'varchar(max)') 

--UNIQUEIDENTIFIER
WHEN system_type_id =36 THEN CONVERT(VARCHAR(MAX),CONVERT(UNIQUEIDENTIFIER,hex_Value)) 

Step-7:

Finally we do a pivot table over the data and you will see the result. THE DELETED DATA IS BACK.

Note: This data will only for display. It is not available in your selected table but you can insert this data in your table.

I’d really appreciate your comments on my posts, whether you agree or not, do comment.

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