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SQL SERVER 2012 -Date and Time Function -TIMEFROMPARTS()

In my previous post, I discussed about DATEFROMPARTS. Today we will discuss TIMEFROMPARTS(). In earlier version of SQL SERVER, there was no built in function to convert time parts (hours, minutes & seconds) to time. Lets have a look, how we were doing in earlier version of SQL server.

For Example :

--SQL Server 2008
Declare @Hour as int=4
Declare @Minute as int=20
Declare @Second as int=30
Declare @Fraction as int=55

Select Convert(time,Convert(varchar(4), @Hour)
+ ':' +
Convert(varchar(2), @Minute)
+ ':' +
Convert(varchar(2), @Second)
+ ':' +
Convert(varchar(2), @Fraction))
--Result
--04:20:30.0550000

But in SQL Server 2012, the solution came as a new built in function namely TIMEFROMPARTS().
Lets discuss this function syntax, parameters, purpose and examples in detail.

Syntax :

TIMEFROMPARTS ( hour, minute, seconds, fractions, precision )

Parameters :
@Hour : A valid integer for Hour range from 0-23.
@Minutes : A valid integer for Minutes range from 0-59.
@Seconds: A valid integer for Seconds range from 0-59.
@Fractions : A valid integer for Fractions range from 0-9999999.
@Precision : A valid integer for Precision range from 0-7.

Purpose :
This function requires a valid hour, minute, seconds, fractions & precision as a parameter and returns a valid time. If we pass any invalid time parts to this function it will return an error. Also if we pass NULL values to any of its parameters except Precision parameter, it returns NULL value . If we pass NULL value to Precision parameter it will generate an error.

Let me explain this with simple examples.

Example-1 : TIMEFROMPARTS – With Valid time parts

Declare @Hour as int=23
Declare @Minute as int=59
Declare @Second as int=59
Declare @Fraction as int=50
Select TIMEFROMPARTS(@Hour,@Minute,@Second,@Fraction,2) as [Result]
--Result
23:59:59.50 Example-2 : TIMEFROMPARTS – With Valid & Invalid precision

Declare @Hour as int=23, @Minute as int=59, @Second as int=59,@Fraction as int
Set @Fraction=2 -- If fractions is 2 and precision is 1
--, It means the fractions will be 2/10 of a second.
Select TIMEFROMPARTS(@Hour,@Minute,@Second,@Fraction,1) as [Result]

Set @Fraction=20 -- If fractions is 20 and precision is 2
--, It means the fractions will be 20/100 of a second.
Select TIMEFROMPARTS(@Hour,@Minute,@Second,@Fraction,2) as [Result]

Set @Fraction=200 -- If fractions is 200 and precision is 3
--, It means the fractions will be 200/1000 of a second.
Select TIMEFROMPARTS(@Hour,@Minute,@Second,@Fraction,3) as [Result]

Set @Fraction=2000 -- If fractions is 2000 and precision is 4
--, It means the fractions will be 2000/10000 of a second.
Select TIMEFROMPARTS(@Hour,@Minute,@Second,@Fraction,4) as [Result]

Set @Fraction=20000 -- If fractions is 20000 and precision is 5
--, It means the fractions will be 20000/100000 of a second.
Select TIMEFROMPARTS(@Hour,@Minute,@Second,@Fraction,5) as [Result]

Set @Fraction=200000 -- If fractions is 200000 and precision is 6
--, It means the fractions will be 200000/1000000 of a second.
Select TIMEFROMPARTS(@Hour,@Minute,@Second,@Fraction,6) as [Result]

Set @Fraction=2000000
-- If fractions is 2000000 and precision is 7
--, It means the fractions will be 2000000/10000000 of a second.
Select TIMEFROMPARTS(@Hour,@Minute,@Second,@Fraction,7) as [Result]

Set @Fraction=2000000
--It will generate an error because precision can be 7 maximum
--, It means the fractions will be 2000000/10000000 of a second.
--Select TIMEFROMPARTS(@Hour,@Minute,@Second,@Fraction,8) as [Result]
--Result If precision is 8 then it will generate this error.

Msg 1002, Level 16, State 2, Line 33
Line 33: Specified scale 8 is invalid.

Example-3 : TIMEFROMPARTS – With Invalid time parts
If we provide an invalid time part to this function, it will generate an error because only valid time parts are allowed as a parameter.

Declare @Hour as int=25 --- Hour cannot be 25
Declare @Minute as int=59
Declare @Second as int=59
Declare @Fraction as int=50

Select TIMEFROMPARTS(@Hour,@Minute,@Second,@Fraction,2) as [Result]
--Result

Msg 289, Level 16, State 2, Line 24
Cannot construct data type time, some of the arguments have values which are not valid. Example-4 : TIMEFROMPARTS- NULL as a parameter except Precision parameter
If we pass NULL value to any of its parameter except Precision parameter, It will return NULL value .

Declare @Hour as int=23
Declare @Minute as int=59
Declare @Second as int=NULL ---Pass Seconds as NULL
Declare @Fraction as int=50
Select TIMEFROMPARTS(@Hour,@Minute,@Second,@Fraction,2) as [Result]
--Result Example-5 : TIMEFROMPARTS- @Precision as NULL value
If we pass NULL value to precision parameter of this function, It will generate an error.

Declare @Hour as int=23
Declare @Minute as int=59
Declare @Second as int=50
Declare @Fraction as int=50
Select TIMEFROMPARTS(@Hour,@Minute,@Second,@Fraction,NULL) as [Result]
--Result

Msg 10760, Level 16, State 1, Line 23
Scale argument is not valid. Valid expressions for data type time scale argument are integer constants and integer constant expressions. Example-6 : TIMEFROMPARTS- With Null and Invalid parameters
If we pass NULL and Invalid value to its parameter, It will return NULL as a result.

Declare @Hour as int=25 ---Hour cannot exceed 23
Declare @Minute as int=59
Declare @Second as int=NULL ---Second parameter as NULL
Declare @Fraction as int=50
Select TIMEFROMPARTS(@Hour,@Minute,@Second,@Fraction,2)
as [Result]
--Result
NULL Example-7: TIMEFROMPARTS- With missing Fraction if precision is defined
If precision is zero , we cannot define the fraction as well. It should be zero.

Declare @Hour as int=23
Declare @Minute as int=59
Declare @Second as int=59
Declare @Fraction as int=50
Select TIMEFROMPARTS(@Hour,@Minute,@Second,@Fraction,0)
as [Result]
--Result

Msg 289, Level 16, State 2, Line 24
Cannot construct data type time, some of the arguments have values which are not valid. Example-8: TIMEFROMPARTS- With missing parameters
As I have mentioned above, all parameters(5) are mandatory for TIMEFROMPARTS function. Lets try to pass less than 5 parameters.

Declare @Hour as int=23
Declare @Minute as int=59
Declare @Second as int=59
Declare @Fraction as int=50
Select TIMEFROMPARTS(@Hour,@Minute,@Fraction,2) as [Result]
--Result

Msg 10760, Level 16, State 1, Line 23
The timefromparts function requires 5 argument(s). Reference : MSDN